Combining Wikidata with OSM allows us to build on the work of Mapio Cymru which has been developing a map of Wales using only Welsh language data held in the OSM database. By aligning and combining this with Wikidata the map can begin to grow further, offering more information to users through the medium of Welsh.
And this is important. Many places in Wales, be they towns, villages, hills or beaches have two names, or sometimes more. The names in Welsh are almost always the original place names, ancient in origin and steeped in history. These names are usually descriptive or refer to long lost saints, chieftains or fortresses. The English versions of place names are sometimes meaningless mutations of the Welsh originals or names imposed by medieval invaders or Victorian ‘modernisers’. Even today historic properties are renamed in English by their new owners and Welsh names are dropped from websites and maps in favour of English alternatives deemed to be ‘more easy to pronounce’.
This project aims to decolonise mapping in Wales, not by erasing English place names from the record but giving users the option to view and explore a modern map of Wales solely through the medium of Welsh – a service that didn’t really exist until the launch of Mapio Cymru.
So the first challenge with this project is actually to encourage communities to contribute their local Welsh place names to OSM or Wikidata so that they can be included in the map, and this is done through a series of discussions, workshops and editing events. […]
Our team has been working continuously on improving the number of Welsh place names that appear online since our inception in 2017 as partt of the Welsh Government’s Welsh Government #Cymraeg2050 project, and we are now very happy to announce that we’ll be working with the National Library of Wales this year on new aspects of the work.
The National Library has a great experience of crowdsourcing projects, and between now and April 2022 we hope to attract quite a crowd to a number of aspects of the work:
hold Wikidata-OSM Cymru events all over Wales –
e.g. school sessions (come into contact if you want to invite us over!) and collect audio clips of local names
As well as crowdsourcing the project, we will also use Wikidata to store and share Welsh language information. Wikidata is a sister project for Wikipedia, and we will take advantage of the wealth of Welsh data already in this huge dataset to improve the map in terms of the core data that we have at our fingertips. In addition to using the existing Wikidata we intend to add between 5,000 and 10,000 new data records with Welsh labels, for things like hills, mountains, lakes and public services and ensure that these are displayed on our Welsh map on OSM. Menter Iaith Mon will lead on a series of events in schools to improve the content of Wicipedia Cymraeg for their local places and spaces.
By making links between Wici and OSM projects we can help build a Welsh map rich in data and more ways for users to explore that data in Welsh.
We hope that this project will provide a framework for developers and organisations who want to build digital mapping services in the Welsh language.
In addition, by the end of this year’s project, we will move ‘back to the future’ and to the blue sky thinking of the popular SatNav concept that attracted a great deal of attention during our first year…and we’ll ask
what kind of additional steps are needed for an external company to add Welsh to the languages supported by SatNav?
Mapio Cymru, like OpenStreetMap itself, is a community project where people from different parts of the country co-operate via the ‘parent’ site https://osm.org ; which in turn feeds a lot of data to our Welsh-language map https://openstreetmap.cymru so if you’ve developed a taste for changing the world and would like to know more our work on any other aspect of the work of adding to the Welsh names that exist online – that therefore protects our history and culture and indeed our legacy – then please do get in touch
We are building an open public map of Wales with all the names in Welsh. Because of recent work, the map will load much faster for you now.
Here’s what we did to improve the map loading speed.
When you load the map, what you’re seeing is a grid of tiles. Each is a square image file, like this:
These tile images are rendered from the underlying map data in OpenStreetMap, which is stored as points, ways, and relations. As well as the data, the OpenStreetMap software stack developed by the project is also freely licensed.
The most time consuming part of showing an up-to-date map to a user is converting the data into images. This tends to be done when the user loads the map: the images are generated and served, and also stored in a cache on the server.
If the map were completely finished and final then that would help. We could make sure the server has the tile images all rendered and stored, and serve them every time. But that’s not an option for the whole map for a couple of reasons.
At the moment the Mapio Cymru map is updated automatically once every night when most people in Wales are asleep, and server capacity tends to be higher. These updates are necessary because geographical map features and names change often, whenever somebody makes an edit to OpenStreetMap. This is often an improvement to the map, e.g. somebody adding a name to a feature. The open data elements are constantly being revised, making it a bit like a Wikipedia of maps. The edit can also be a response to something changing in the physical world, e.g. a café changing its name or perhaps a lovely new railway station.
Therefore we can’t preserve the map in aspic, it’s changing all the time.
It turns out there’s another snag to the idea of pre-rendering and storing the whole map to speed up loading. There is a different set of image tiles at each zoom level. For the furthest zoom levels it is possible to store all the tile images. But for closer zoom levels, the total number of tiles grows exponentially. Pretty soon we need a vast amount of time and storage space, much more than we have.
For example all of Wales at zoom level 17 took a little over seven hours to render overnight. That’s too much.
Can we pre-render and store some selected tiles, and then render any others on demand? It turns out that we can. The challenge is to figure out what to pre-render for maximum speed advantage, given the constraints of time and storage.
What are the map areas of ‘interest’ or ‘relevance’, and how do we codify this more precisely?
Initially we had a hypothesis that for the map sparsely populated areas would be less frequently visited than densely populated areas. One method would be to pre-render areas above a certain population density threshold.
I then realised that there was another solution much more ready to go, and even better. We could refer to aggregated browser requests for tiles to see which parts of our map were visited most. This allows us to look at the historical popularity of areas right down to individual tile level. This was data we already had, lying in the server logs.
Here’s a heat map produced by Ben Proctor.
The popular areas do seem to correspond to population density. There may also be a relationship with the number and/or percentage of Welsh speakers in different areas, which is available from Census data.
I’ve instructed the server to pre-render these tiles and store them. We have chosen these areas:
Zoom levels 3 to 16 are now entirely pre-rendered.
Zoom levels 17 and 18 are now partially pre-rendered.
Now the server automatically pre-renders these areas every night, immediately after importing the up-to-date data.
The difference was very noticeable when I loaded the site before and after the change. Beforehand I’d been a bit embarrassed about the huge blank areas and the apparent freeze-ups of the map, while the server wheezed along. I am not experiencing that anymore – at least for now!
On average, tiles are loading in 40% of the time when pre-rendered. That’s a dramatic improvement, although the degree of speed-up is highly dependent on how many users are accessing the server at once.
Even tiles that are not pre-rendered are loading faster because there is usually more capacity on the server.
Incidentally the smooth running of the server also depends on choosing the right settings and configuration. (We briefly considered nginx as an alternative to Apache but it appears not to have an equivalent of the mod_tile module.)
The original blog in Welsh was written as a call-out for information on Welsh place names, concentrating on the word ‘Garth’.
Not entirely convinced that an English translation will work, so here instead are some pretty pictures of the #MapioCymru team of the 2018 vintage walking up Gwaelod y Garth!
…it would be great if you take this winter as an opportunity to go for a stroll (in line with your Local Authority’s recommendations!) and check if your local name places are on our map openstreetmap.cymru and if not, then add them by registering as an openstreetmap.org user.